tv Politics Public Policy Today CSPAN April 30, 2013 1:00am-6:01am EDT
probably played itn th manner. >> basically didn't -- >> i'm sorry. >> they basically didn't. unlike let's say dolly madison, for instance, or louisa adams, they were very politically savvy. yes, they moved their parlor meetings and dinners and things to talk to the various congressmen and senators and get their point of view across. >> interesting, we didn't make this connection. martha came up frequently in polk administration or the other tennessee president. the id she not go to school? >> she went to school there -- shep went to school in washington. >> she didn't go to school off of the way the polk administration did? >> sarah polk was a great one. mrs. polk didn't have children of her own. she often times invited the young girls in the school that were there. she became quite friendly with mrs. polk and harriet lange who was buchanan's niece. so she's kind of?-- she came into politics thereupon the back
door, let's say. but i don't think she really impressed upon her father or wanted to push her particular point of view. plus she was married to a senator. her husband was a senator. so she was very aware of what was going on. but mainly taking it from the back door, so to speak. >> one of the telling sources says that someone appealed to her for clemency for mary serrot. she said i feel so terribly sorry for you but i have no more right to speak to him about this than any of the servants. she kept it background. >> hi, darla? caller: my question was, are the johnsons the last president to own -- that were former slave owners, or were there more presidents after them? >> thank you very much. that's a good question. i wanted to say no. i was thinking of an group -- sorry, ulysses s. grant was opposed to slavery. so the presidents after that did
not. that sad part of our history ends with the johnson administration. the first six, seven presidents all did have slaves other than the johnsons, other than john adams and john quincy adams. they were the only two of the early presidents who didn't have slaves. and basically stopped with zachary taylor. i think he was the last president that literally brought slaves to the white house with him. after that, they didn't. >> next, a question from tennessee, jonesboro. and our caller is carol. hi, carol. caller: hello? >> you're on. caller: okay, thank you. yes. my husband's mother marry martha patterson's daughter, which would have been andrew johnson's grand daughter some years ago. she claimed two jonesboro specifically to talk to my mother-in-law at the time saying that she feels?-- that her grandmother was so thankful that
her husband's great -- great, great grandfather had saved the johnson homestead and had given safe passage to the family to the johnson family so they had wanted to go to the homestead during the war, they could have. he was a confederate general that at one time was over the east tennessee area, gerald a. jackson. his grand daughter was my mother-in-law. >> thanks for that story. do you know any more about that? granting safe passage or a general that looked after the family home in the war? >> not in particular. >> thanks for telling us about it. can we fairly look at eliza and andrew johnson without the shadow of impeachment over their white house. >> sadly, historians can't, but the average public, that's all they constantly remember.
historians look back on it and understand that he had a position on, you know, the homestead act that he wanted settlers to be able to settle on it, build it. the public doesn't want to hear that. it's gossip that wants to be repeated year after year. >> how does the national park service tell the impeachment story at the site? >> we incorporate it into the story. it's a major part of it. you try to show all sides and let the public decide for themselves how they feel about that. >> so let's tell a story about what led to impeachment? walk us through the steps and i'll ask both of you to tell the story that ultimately led to the house charging him with high
crimes and misdemeanors? >> right. well, i can tell you that the senate basically, they had passed an -- an act of congress that said that the president himself could not fire his cabinet members without congress' approval. and that, of course, is not constitutional and president johnson said there's no way he was going to do that. that's not going to be part of it. so he went ahead and suspended secretary of war, stanton. that's when the senate said, okay, we're going to push this. because he did that, he was, in fact, in violation of this law. and that's basically one of the things that pushed it over the
edge for him. >> but it was a showdown. you said he and stanton had a lot of antipathy. so tell us about the politics. >> he suspended stanton in the fall when congress is not in session and in december when they were back in session, he told them what he had done. they basically rejected that and restored him to office in january. impetus for them to go ahead and start impeachment proceedings but with the caveat that they couldn't fire a member of the cabinet in the term of the president who appointed them. so lincoln had appointed stanton. so it's like they very much hurt themselves by doing that. >> the impeachment proceedings began in the congress on march 5, 1868 and would go through may, 1868. and the first lady had an active role in all of this. take a call and come back and learn more about this.
next is john, waverly, tennessee. you're on, john. ering waso's a'am, i was just reaction about her husband seeing -- as well as the people of tennessee's relationship with the johnsons after his rise to power. if that became a problem or what? >> how did eliza johnson feel about her husband being tapped by lincoln for the vice presidency? >> she was very proud of her husband. no question about that. she supported all of his decisions but once again, she was a quiet person. testifies fine for her husband to be in politics, go to washington, be in the senate, be in congress. but she didn't want to be a part of it. yet she constantly supported his decision to do it all the time. she was very much a supporter in the impeachment. i mean, i know there was other things that with air tributed to her that she had wished that she could be back home where they best belonged and things of that nature. but she obviously believed that her husband would be acquitted and was very proud of it when he was. she kept saying she knew that would happen. she knew it. >> during the length of the three months that the trial was
going on, what was she doing to help support her husband? >> it was just very much business as usual at the white house. they went on as if nothing else was going on. that was part of the political posturing, right? >> right. >> a lot to keep their minds off of things. >> and the attorneys, the attorneys told johnson not to say anything to reserve comment. we will handle it. and so mrs. johnson said we're going to go ahead with business as usual. the grandchildren were around. they still had their meetings every week. she didn't have time to comment on it. >> yeah, she didn't have time to comment on it. she was so busy, you know, doing so much around the house that needed to be done. >> you told us she was an avid follower of the press. we can presume that she was silting there every day. >> sure. >> absolutely. and reading everything. i think that's part of the the thing. when there was something good in the newspaper, she would show him that at night before she went to bed. if it was critical, she'd wait
until morning to show imto him. my impression was, as much as johnson wanted to debate it, his attorneys said don't do it that. >> had a very well balanced defense team. >> exactly. >> the personal bodyguard in attendance there writes that he rush in to tell eliza that johnson had been acquitted and the little woman stood up and and with tears in her eyes she said, i knew he'd be acquitted, i knew it. >> each week, a special feature. on the website this week is a ticket for the impeachment. how popular an event was this? >> my understanding that it was very popular and everyone wanted to go to it. i think it was $1 i'm trying to recall. do you have any pictures on it? >> no. >> not enough detail? and with tears in her >> people in washington, d.c. unlike the rest of the country, very active in politics.
involved in what was going on. most think on the middle east or you know the midwest and certainly the west, california. they're somewhat removed from it. they read about it or hear about it on the news. but the people in washington, d.c. that want to be right there and want to, you know, partake in it. so very important to them. >> they had different colors for different days. and the galleries were full and an interesting side note is that mark twain was one of the reporters at the impeachment trial. >> if you canvass the newspapers at the time, how was this playing in the papers? how on earth did it last -- there were opinion writers following politics not just reporting the political cartoons. harper's weekly, we have a compilation of the harper's weekly articles about the impeachment trial. >> how did he fare in all of this?
public support behind him? >> some -- some -- >> as far as we know, yes. that's why it's good news or bad news. it's only the country and the president chose to listen to the people that, in fact, supported him. he was very much a constitutionalist. he believed in the constitution. and his interpretation of it is what he, you know, said was going be law, basically. that's what it was, as far as he's concerned. >> he said as much as he feels vilified, he was as passionately liked by others. >> exactly. >> jonesy, another tennesseean in greenville, actually. you're on, welcome. >> hey. i was wondering, what relationship did the johnsons have with their slaves? >> okay. now you have to tell us a little bit about yourself if you will. how old are you? >> 10 years old. >> have you been to the johnson site in your hometown? >> i've been right around close
to it. i haven't been in it. >> well, we hope we've inspired you to do that coming up soon. thank you for your question from -- the president from your own hometown, josie, thank you for your call tonight? >> a neat relationship. dolly's son?-- you remember eliza had candies and cookies by her bed when they came up. just as we talked before, the support they gave them as they stayed on as servants and giving land and health care. >> and helping them. >> abc luisly. >> popular for san diego. caller: hi, this is a fabulous program. i was born and raised in greenville, tennessee. i go back there every year. i'm very familiar with andrew johnson and the family and but i have learned more tonight than i
ever have and it's been years and years and years. so i want to thank you for this. it's fascinating, and i'll -- i'll be watching for the other presidents as well. >> we'll be here all the way until president's day next year with a break in the summer with the individual program on nearly every first lady and the couple of cases we've combined them. but for the most part, 35 programs to tell you about the lives of the first lady and learn american history that way. you're a greenville, tennessee native. how did you get interest in the johnson history? >> wow, when i was about 12 my mother told me she knew what i needed to do with my life. she said you love history. work for the national park service. there was one here in town. i went to see it. i fell in love. when i was in high school in anchor club. someone said who would like to dress in victorian clothes and help with the christmas candlelights at the johnson homestead this weekend. pick me, please, pick me. i'm impassionate. i majored in english and history
in college. >> you interpreted one of the daughters, one of the daughter s? >> i have done martha on occasion. i have represented mary and one of my first theatrical roles was to do eliza and in my big line was there goes by beau, girls. mark it. >> this is a life's work. three volumes. published two so far. >> how did it start? >> it started with my name. my name is jacklin. i tell my audiences i'm a national speaker. i said i didn't know any jackies as a young girl growing up. they were jackie gleason and jackie cooper. they were men. jaclyn kennedy walked into the white house, i wanted to be just like her. i thought she was charming and beautiful. at the assassination of president kennedy like the rest of the country, i was glued to
the television for four days and four nights long before c spahn and cnn and fox news were all 24-hour news, we were just riveted by the assassination. and that's what got me hooked on it. i've been studying them every since. >> back to the johnsons and the impeachment. he had ten months to go until he finished office after he was acquitted in this. so what kind of political ? administration like? >> i don't think he had much. he kept trying to instill thought for his point of view and the things he wanted to get through. but he had no standing in congress whatsoever. he didn't know how to do it. that's the sad part of the administration. they found him surly. they thought he might have come off a little nasty. they didn't want to work with him at all. it was tough.
>> did he have any chance running for re-election. >> he tried to. and he did have am else inty in his power and on christmas day last year, he -- he imposed a broad amnesty proclamation for the south. >> what did that mean for the people of the south? >> that?-- it forgave them, essentially. and each of the amnesty proclamations got a little bit more liberal each time and the last broad am necessary tip proclamation. certain restrictions, certain amount for landowners, this last one pardoned jefferson davis and everyone. >> how constitutionally important was his impeachment process? did it establish the role for presidents to be able to fire members of their cabinet? >> that was unconstitutional in the first place. a president obviously can fire his own cabinet members. they were doing as much as they could to get greater punishment on the south.
johnson wouldn't go along with it. theyd 'll take you out of office. wasn't constitutional at that time, but it was the first time in history it had occurred. >> was there a constitutional legacy of the impeachment process in some ways let's look back on the history for its significance? >> one thing i'm aware of, one southern democrat did not vote for it. that's why he was impeached. the impeachment process continued and he was acquitted. the republican senator basically lost his ability to go on after that. his party destroyed his political future after that. and it was something that was very courageous for him to do and something that actually future president john kennedy wrote about in his book, you
know, about having courage as they wrote about -- >> "profiles in courage." the ten-year act was turned over in 1986. >> by the supreme court? >> would either of you care to comment on the -- any-- i know you're not american historians. i understand that. but on the legacy of reconstruction on either the south or on american blacks? >> history changed dramatically when lincoln was assassinated. some individuals had the ability to make things happen. we will never know as a country whether or not things would have happened differently. it wouldn't have happened overnight. people did have their prejudices. there was no question about that. it was very sad we weren't able to move forward more quickly. the southern states imposed black laws that even though the slaves were free, they had other
restrictions on them. they said they couldn't own land or they couldn't sit on a jury trial, things of that nature. i don't know where it would have gone. >> if there could have been more compromise between the two fractions which is so extreme. it may have made a difference. >> but regina krumpke asked this question?-- what would the johnsons have considered their political high point? >> i think going back to the senate. that's sort of his vindication. to go back and see that some of the people that were still there that presided in the impeachment trial? >> did you have a different thought? >> i agree with kendra on that. no question about it. but i was speaking when i first heard the question -- if all of
the parties and some of -- and all of the things they did a the white house, for president johnson's 60th birthday, they threw an enormous party that only children were invited. parents and adults wanted to come to the party. eliza came downstairs, she had this wonderful event -- coffee -- excuse me, ice cream and cake for the children and dancing. it was great fun for them. you can see the johnsons particularly enjoyed their aspect of it. that was their high point inside the white house. afterwards, absolutely, when he got re-elected to the senate. >> a nice segue for the final video for this program. this is life after the white house for the johnsons. >> we're in mrs. johnson's room. this is the room she returned to after their years in the white house. we have her bed. and nearby since she was an invalid plagued with consumption, she had what's known as an invalid's chair. she could partake in some of her favorite activities and relax. not only does the foot rest come up, but it reclines.
being an invalid also spending time in this room, there's a spittoon by her chair. this is necessary from the consumption she suffered. pink wash basin and chamber pot. it's interesting because eliza's are pink and the president's are blue in his room. she enjoyed embroidery work. we have a song bird on her table and she enjoyed reading poetry. one was entitled "the happy life." she and drew suffered a lot in the civil war, during the years of the presidency. one of the point she is mark in the book is entitled "love and adversity." stormy skies have drawn our spirits near and rendered us by borrowed tides each to the other dear. that sums up eliza and andrew's relationship. she was an avid scrapbooker and she kept newspaper articles that she clipped about her husband. she gathered them here in her scrapbook.
they run from the 1850s up until past hers and andrew's death up to the 1880s. we can only assume that that's what her daughters kept a tradition going for her. andrew johnson would chat with her every day when he finished his political duties and share the articles she clipped with them. if it was something particularly good, she shows him in the evening. if it's something not so nice, she showed him in the morning because she knew he would be in a better mood. in 1869, an article about the retirement of andrew johnson. that was a momentous occasion in their life. other personal effectings include one of her calling cards, a broach, and a pin cushion for any of the embroidery work or sewing she might have been doing. in the portrait, you can see a lace cap. we still have the lace caps in our collection.
by her bed, we have additional books. one is the bible. it also belonged to eliza. and the grandchildren were a vital part of her life. there were portraits of the grandchildren on the whatnot stand in the corner of the year. she lived here throughout the remainder of her life. she was too ill to go to a death when he died. she remained with her daughter until she passed away herself in 1876. >> based on what you told us about eliza johnson being a home body who really didn't love the public life, she must have been happy to be back in greenville. >> she was thrilled. >> the irony of that is she was thrilled to go back home and they were no sooner back home and andrew wanted to get back into politics. so their lives kind of went back to the way it had always been for them. she just was not interested at all but very proud that her husband did in fact get re-elected to the senate. >> so she supported his run for public office again. did he leave her behind when he
went to washington? >> many letters inquiring after how she's doing, how her health is. and when he was in nashville at one point canvassing, he said let me know if mother gets worse and i'll come back home. >> we should talk about -- he just went through the impeachment trial. but when the johnson family came back to their home in greenville, tennessee and home state of tennessee, what was the reception at home for them. >> surprisingly, very, very good. remember back in the civil war, they were calling him a traitor and whatnot. now there's signs he was a patriot. they're proud to have him come back. the tone completely changed from being very, very negative to extremely positive. >> the townspeople were sending telegrams, what day you're going be here. tell us what day you'll be here. we want to plan a relate exception and we want it to be good. >> this was just the native son
effect or the politics had changed and they were more receptive to it? >> traitor comments came when east tennessee was in the hands of the con -- confederacy. >> robert, what's your question? caller: i would like to know if the johnson home is the original state of franklin in eastern tennessee. and is it true that president johnson was buried in a flag and had the constitution on his hip? thank you. >> yes. the homestead came later. but this was the area where they attempted to create the state of franklin early on -- really after the revolution. and, yes, andrew johnson is buried with the american flag.
his obituary often says the constitution was resting under his hand instead of his head. so i don't know if that's a trick, under his head, under his hand, a slight that changed over the years. the family said he had been buried with the original copy of the constitution that had his writings. >> i think we showed this story. but did eliza and andrew make a love match. was this a love relationship? >> oh, sure. >> absolutely, absolutely. they were married 48 years. a tremendous love match. some said they were of the same mind and same soul. even though completely different -- >> yeah. >> exactly. >> even though completely different. >> it was said he could be vehement. he was a fighter. but the one person that he leaned on completely was the frail little woman.
>> looking for it not successfully here. someone on facebook asks what would eliza johnson want her legacy to be. do we have a sense of that? and what should history show her legacy as first lady? >> on andrew johnson's monument was her face and the people never waivered and i think on hers would be his face and she never waivered. >> so many wanted to be in the white house. mary todd lincoln happened to be one of them. helen taft, sara polk. there were so many involved with their spouses. a few had no desire whatsoever. as much as they loved their spouse and supported their spouse, they didn't want to have part in politics. zachary taylor's wife margaret felt the same way. it's a different of opinion. you love your spouse and it's their career. lady bird johnson made that comment when she left the white house. she said politics my husband's career, not mine. >> the one thing that may have resigned her to being in the
white house was the fact that the entire family was there with her. >> the fact that the kids were there with -- were there with her, exactly. >> ron from florida? are you there, sir? caller: i am indeed. thank you for the series and for taking my call. a couple of quick questions how does eliza respond to on the night of lincoln's assassination, a card was left for her husband as well. second, really quick, have any of your guests seen the film, "johnson" a wonderful film done in the '40s with van halen?-- van heflin, rather, playing johnson. it vindicated johnson a little bit. >> have you seen the film? >> oh, yes. in the bicentennial, we had a special showing of it in the old capital theater and we had world war ii newsreel go before it
when it was originally shown. >> the question about eliza and the lincoln assassination. >> i'm not aware that she was even heard about it. unlike today when we were calling and doing things instantaneously, it took longer to get information. i knew she was terrified. i don't know what her immediate reaction was. >> in a cone, i think who they stayed with after they left the white house said they told poor eliza too quickly and completely devastated her. >> i want to read you a closing comment on facebook. i learned that eliza johnson looked forward to leaving the white house the day she arrived. i often wish the time would come where we could return where we feel we best belong. he writes, even though she felt this way, history has shown that the johnson family behaved and lived impeccably while in the white house with spotless social reputationings. do you agree with his
do you agree with his assessment? >> absolutely. people in the white house, people in washington say they were extremely honorable. they were probably one of the most well-liked families that lived in the white house because they were so gracious. they gave of themselves, their time, their energies, their efforts and i totally agree. >> one said that he was probably one of the hardest working presidents that was ever in the white house. and they also said once you got him away from politics he was a pleasant fellow to be around. >> we hope we have added more to the story rather than simply the first impeach president tonight. presidential pondering to close with. was there any morning where andrew or elisa passed away six months apart from each other? >> there was a burial for andrew johnson, a special train, brought and dignitaries and people alike. and then, recently, when elisa died, the same catapult was was drawn bynd it
four white horses. >> the white house historical association has been our partner and will be throughout a whole series, helping us with rearch and many of the photographs and other editions -- as additions -- additions. working her life's work cents a teenager. and, a series on the first lady's called love, lies, and tears, the lives of american first ladies, available for those of you. thank you for listening here tonight. thank you for watching. our next is on the life of the grants. ♪ [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013]
♪ >> next week, we will focus on the first first lady to focus -- to write memoirs. she spent years following her husband from one military post to another. then, she threw ravish -- lavish parties and reorganized the staff. ensured her position to jobs to family members and friends. we will explore her life growing
up in a family, and her years before the white house and after the presidency and her influence. julia grant live next monday at 9:00 p.m. eastern on c-span. our website has more about the first ladies, including a special session, welcome to the white house, produced by our partner at the white house historical association. first ladies of the nights it's america, a portrait of each first lady, comments from noted historians, and thought from michelle obama on first place throughout history. now available throughout a discounted price.
>> c-span, crated by american cable companies in 1979, brought to you as a public service by your television provider. >> coming up next, the 20th anniversary ceremony for the holocaust museum. later, president obama speech on the importance of science investments. later, the the defense secretary chuck hagel holds a news conference with the japanese counterpart. >> former president bill clinton spoke monday at an event marking the 20th anniversary of the holocaust museum in washington d.c. this is just over an hour. [indiscernible crowd
conversations] [indiscernible crowd conversations] >> ladies and gentlemen, please welcome today's honored hocaust museum.r odict the tom bernstein, chair of the holocaust museum. lisa zaid, a granddaughter of four holocaust survivors. world war ii veteran scottie. the founding chairman of the united states holocaust memorial museum. [applause] and president bill clinton, founder of the clinton foundation and 42nd president of the united states. please rise for the army flags.
the 63rd infantry division and fourth armored division. the 65th infantry division and third armored division. the 69th infantry division and 104th infantry division. the 71st infantry division and 103rd infantry division. the 80th infantry division and 99th infantry division. the 83rd infantry division and 95th infantry division. the 84th infantry division and 19th infantry division. the 86 infantry division and 89th infantry division.
time they are particularly meaningful. they remind is what the museum stands for and what many of you know firsthand, the fragility of freedom and the courage and sacrifice in necessary to preserve it. today these flags also remind us that we are at a turning point. our best teachers are here today. we know they're not here forever. fortunately, this museum is here forever. [applause] i am so pleased to announce that we give 843 and 130 world war ii veterans with us.
we will pay special tribute to them later. now i want to recognize a few other extraordinary guests. as some of you know, last night we presented the eli wiesel award. not here today but with us in. is the grandson of martha sharp who left her children and went to europe as representative of the american unitarian association to establish networks to help jews trying to flee. they secured safe passage for hundreds. next -- [applause]
next we have a young man in polenta made a possible for several jewish women to hide in a small village, even concealing their identity from his own parents. finally, mark, who with his father worked in southern france not only providing false identification cards, food, and money that helped hundreds of jews escape. these remarkable individuals and all the other 24,000 will forever be an
we are also delighted to have with us today many institutional partners from all over the u.s. and europe including three senior officials who will be part of a presentation later this morning on holocaust education in their countries. the german defense minister. polish minister of culture and national heritage. and french ambassador at large for human-rights, francois zimerlay. it is my pleasure to recognize three individuals who were here
faces. ofe are descendants survivors or veterans. many are not. they are here not because of a family connection but because they recognize the importance of our mission for the future and their role in it. the museum's motto is "what you do matters." we know from the holocaust that it is the actions of young people who are the change agents in any society that will shape the future. some of my most powerful memories are breaking my three teenage children through the museum and being part of that transformative experience with them. like all kids, they like technology. they realized technological progress must never be confused with moral progress. here they confront profound truths about human nature from the awful to inspirational. here they are prepared along with millions of other young people for their moral
responsibilities in an increasingly uncertain future. to guide the future of our museum, i am pleased to introduce my dear friend, director sara bloomfield. >> thank you for being here, especially president clinton. we welcome you back. as we mark this milestone and celebrate the in during continuity of our cause, we are joined again by our visionary leader elie wiesel who is with us on the dedication to decades ago. i'll never forget what he said. standing before thousands, he declared the museum is not an answer. it is a question. the those words, he told world that the purpose of the museum is not only to reveal the past but to serve as a
constant provocation for the future. ever since, this place has challenged leaders and citizens, students and teachers from here and everywhere to look themselves, to look beyond themselves and to wrestle essentialof the most issues of human behavior in modern society. to that overwhelming question, does memory have the power to change the world 20 years on?
our answer is a resounding "yes." today's new world demands new questions. what will our museum be in the 21st century? how will the holocaust speak across generations? how powerfully will that voice be heard? we believe it history must shape the history yet to be lived. we must never cease to ask the hardest question of all, "how was the holocaust allowed to happen?" there are many answers. a shameful event took place 70 years ago at the height of the holocaust when representatives of the american and british government met in bermuda to find a solution to the growing refugee problem. the bermuda conference of april 1943 was not the result of
outrage against evil or determination to do good or deep concern for jews. it was a show that yielded nothing but an optimistic press release and a dreary bureaucratic report released a month later. an american official wrote to the secretary of state "the bermuda conference was an effective. we knew it would be." one headline read "scant hope seen for victims." for those victims a death sentence had been written. at the same time, far from the bright sunshine of that empty spectacle, some of the victims were desperately trying against all odds. the day it opened was the very
day the uprising flared across the warsaw ghetto. the jews kept the germans at bay for over a month. the allies received news that the above jews has sent a radio message to the west. it ended with two simple words, "save us." that is why this museum sits in the most powerful city in the world. that is why it sits just blocks from the white house and the state department, from the very institutions that failed to save them. this is why it reaches citizens in all 50 states. the holocaust is a story of power. the figure of power held by the allies. the unwillingness of too many people everywhere to speak to take a stand, to use their own power as individuals.
the abuse of power is just one of the great questions that elie and our other founders envisioned. the museum makes sure that the millions we reach each year will not only look back at the holocaust and ask "what would i have done?" bill will look ahead to dangers unimaginable and ask themselves "what will i do?" we welcome to young women who answered that with impressive zeal. >> it is my honor to be here
today. my great-grandfather died trying to save his community holocaust. as jews were being deported, and he led a group of 97 people into the forests of poland hoping they might have a better chance to survive. of these 97 people with their entire lives ahead of them, generations of talent, only three survived. one was my grandfather. when he survived, it was the american army who nursed him back to health in a displaced persons camp in germany. to this day the american flag is the largest one in their entire neighborhoods.
poland will never tell this story. it will never remember the rich and vibrant lives of these individuals. in our country, we built a place of memory. we built in not just for them up for ourselves, for the sake humanity. when i walked into the holocaust memorial museum and i look at the thousands of photographs we have any million pages of archives and testimony of of veterans and artifacts the rescue, i hear the voice of my family speaking to me as if they are right there next to me. i hear the voices of all of the other families who did not make it saying "you must bear and tell our stories."
beautiful families from which you came. [applause] the very center of democracy of freedom in the world, you have a permanent home in our museum. we will continue to make your voice is heard by future generations as we have with the 35 million visitors who have walked through our doors in the last 20 years. to the veterans who are here, i stand before you with the utmost humility and respect. granddaughterhe of auschwitz aq1797 as the number states on my grandmother's arm, i thank you for your bravery and service and not just to this country but to an even higher moral cause, to humanity in general.
to ensure these stories like my family is live on it will take many passionate voices. mine will be one. there'll be others. the legacy is an inherited one for me, for rebekah it is a chosen one. she was actively involved in one of the museum programs for high school students and then as a high school english teacher herself she taught the holocaust to her students. today she's a member of the museum staff, bringing holocaust education to young people throughout the country and world. please welcome rebecca.
>> i like to share a poem i wrote for this location. i am not the likely voice of a holocaust survivor. i presume that there are more likely torchbearers in the room. one might assume a black woman may not relate to this history. wrong is wrong. theustice speaks values matter what side of the line you are on. i remember as a student we learned about the holocaust and what appeared to be one day. i was unable to walk away. i saw how little my textbook had to say. for 12 years i resolve to speak out against the evils of this world. in speaking for one i can speak for all. i learned that the evils of this world never sleep. i am provide a martin luther king's dream.
i committed to this history with my own students. i make sure they get more than just one day. i give them the lesson of a lifetime. this story is mine. there is no such thing as a likely voice. i must bear witness that silence can never be my choice. thank you. [applause] >> thank you. lisa and i are here to live the
lessons of resilience and compassion that we learned from holocaust survivors that are here today. >> i will not be here today if it wasn't for the bravery and sacrifice of world war ii veterans who fought so valiantly to liberate europe and a defeat fascism around the world. joinite all of you to rebeca antony in pledging that we will carry their stories into the future. as a symbol, the museum has created this for you. the significance of these pins is not only to acknowledge what these individuals have been stored, it is also about what we reached and must do for you and our future.
he did great things for america in the world. but when it came to saving jewish lives he could have done it earlier. my dear friends, you are worthy. he cannot not say what is in our heart. there is a certain measure of sadness. what are we learning here? this is dedicated to human rights and human dignity. it is written in stone. passerby's interest here but do not enter displays of desire. in this museum, which is a monument to human suffering and courage to overcome suffering, do not enter this place with out fear. fear of failing for such a long time to save those who are threatened by common enemies. at the same time, later these very nations and leaders did stand-up to the moral obligations to fight evil with all the weapons at our disposal. between these two temptations is what humanity is when it tries to overcome all the disappointments in life and only claim to be best, the noblest of the human spirit and dedication to memories and truth. [applause] what do we say to young people? you are our witnesses. you will go beyond our lives. you are our hope. onlyver we do now is not for the sake of the past but
also for the sake of the future. you are our future. we believe there for that whatever witnesses are trying to say, it the best and saddest, you're the flag bearers. it is your memory that inherits ours. armey believes in yours. remember that. you have not only an idea but an ideal a saving whatever the past has to offer for the future. what have we learned? when we planned this museum, we thought who will we remember, only the jews?
not all victims were jews but all the jews were victims. we came with all ideas of what to do with our memory, but not to separate people. it would be false if we told our story to separate people from people or religion from religion. we believe opening up of the gate of our memory we are bringing people closer together
and showing what an individual can do. those who saved the lives, all these christians to saved lives while risking their own, every one of them is a hero. [applause] i also remember it that once [inaudible] they organized a group for the liberators. we brought liberators from all over the world. i spoke to them. you are now the first to have seen us. you were the first free men and women who have seen us. you be our witnesses. i was going to one to another. tell me what gave you the courage to resist? what gave you the courage to become a hero? all of them answer me, we
heroes? if my neighbor was in danger, how could i not offer him a place in my cellar for attic? i said to myself, in those times it was enough to be human become a hero. my good friends, we are trying to honor not to make heroes but to make the visitor a messenger. president clinton 20 years ago here in this place, it was raining. he was soaked. our shoes were in water.
i saw them, yours and mine. i remember then that i came to speak. we had worked on my speech the entire night, literally. then i opened my folder, if ever i was close to a heart attack it was then, it was soaked. i couldn't decipher the words. had i tried to remember what i said it would have been a disaster. so i had to improvise a new one. that is when i turned to you, mr. president, and i spoke to you about yugoslavia. i had just come back from there. what we must do in the name of
our memory, what we must do to help those people from becoming victims of one another. i remember you promised america will do and then you're kind enough to send me an emissary to yugoslavia. that will not be forgotten by my wife or myself or my friends. at that moment, you and i became friends. as you note to me, friendship me is a religion.
it is with the less noble without any danger. to have you here now 20 years later is more than a privilege. it is a gift. [applause] it is a gift which any open is a gift. a great poet said it, "sometimes an open hand is a poem." it becomes a task. it becomes a mission. it is also a gift. pathetic, tragic, but so filled with grandeur that i want you to know, young people, that what ever you will do what only
everythingow said that needs to be said. they were terrific. let us give them another hand. i want to thank our world war ii veteran. i think it is impressive he can still fit in his uniform. [applause] to all the survivors who are here, veterans and those who helped, i thank you very much. i think elie so much for the friendship you have given to hillary any of the last 20 years. that friendship was shown what
happened 20 years ago. he looked at me and said that i needed to get off my rear end and do something about bosnia. sooner was better than later. [applause] wasways thought it interesting that the world and not take enough note, that the drive with in america and also within europe to stop the slaughter of in bosnia and to later to prevent a genocide in kosovo was a drive led by jews to save the lives of european muslims. that is very important. i think there are two profound
missions for the holocaust museum and all those who do its work and preach its message on this 20th anniversary. the first is to make sure that as direct memories fade away, that the records and pictures and the stories never die, to make sure that we will always be able to come here to remind us that no matter how smart a people are, if you have a head with out a heart you are not human. to remind us of what happened was so we can be vigilant about
stopping it from happening again. we have all of these wonderful monuments here. the lincoln memorial. jefferson memorial when he when he thought of slavery trembled to think if that god was just. the roosevelt memorial reminding of his personal courage in the face of adversity. the world war ii memorial, and on and on. the washington monument is a metaphor for the strength of washington in are beginning. they all give something to our country and to visitors around the world to come here, but the holocaust memorial will be our conscience.
it will be here as our conscience for now, forever. [applause] there's one other thing that i think is very important. arguably, the most important scientific development in the last 20 years, since we were last year, those of us who were here 20 years ago, it was the sequencing of the human genome in 2000. unbelievabled to developments, saving lives, and we have only scratched the surface. i say, with some humility, that it was the most important thing
because we have had a lot of exciting things happen. our great telescope just identified two more planets outside of our solar system billions of miles away. it seemed to be enough like us that it could support life. i suppose if we found out some time between now and the end of the ceremony that we are not in the universal won't, i would have to revise my assessment. but these two things, the exploration of outer space and the exploration of the innermost minute part of our own physical existence have taught us lessons that reinforce the what has happened here for 20 years and must continue to happen here.
we have learned a lot about our bodies. we now know, for young women, the two genetic variants that put them most at risk for east cancer, so if that is identified you can have a dramatic increase in your survival rate. at the hospital in memphis, they've found a genetic variant between children who superficially had the exact same kind of breast cancer -- i mean, brain cancer, so that the medicine that cured one, when cut in half, would save them, too. for all of us here today, the most important finding of the human genome research is a simple one. every non-age related difference you can see in this across the globe, every
single one, is contained in one half of 1% of our genetic makeup. we are 99.5% the same, men and women, black, white, brown, tall and short, european, asian. [applause] now, in that 0.5% are things i really matter. somewhere there, albert einstein got the greatest brain we have ever made. it changed the world. somewhere in that 0.5%, a deaf beethoven became a great composer. somewhere in that 0.5%, great athletic achievements were created, but everyone of us spends too much time on that 0.5%. most of us spend 99.5% of our time thinking about what makes us different and that makes as vulnerable to the fever, the
pakistan a girl to get shot, just because she wanted to go to school, because they threaten a group whose power rested in no small measure on its ability to control women's lives. that's how that little girl got raped and murdered in delhi. no one wanted to do anything about it. int's why a young woman afghanistan the other day jumped off her father's house, because her arranged marriage to a man meant that he was going to force her to drop out of school she wanted to become a doctor. they thought she would be by the outside influences
she never went to school, never had to leave the house. you see this virus taking different forms, still all over the world. it's alive and well today. the thing that led people for centuries to slaughter jews, drive jews out of their homeland, it was all rooted in the idea that the only thing that matters is our differences and jews were handy target. people resent them for their industriousness, their family, their faith. there were never so many of them as there were someone else. we all like to beat up on people when we know the outcome uncertain. today, on the 20th anniversary, i ask you to recommit, to replace the direct memories of those who are still with us, thank god.
no one needs to get these stories and these lessons and i asked you to think about how the historic slaughter and the suffering of the holocaust reflects a human disease that takes different forms. the idea that our differences are more important than our common humanity. it is still the major cost of hot break -- heartbreak around the world as we saw at the boston marathon, and it is still the biggest threat to our children and grandchildren reaping the full promise of an interdependent world. you know the truth. you have enshrined it here. you must continue to worked to give it to all humankind. thank you. god bless you. [applause]
budget cuts on fda inspections. live on c-span every morning at 7:00 a.m. eastern. bill clinton speaks at georgetown university tuesday about the people, events, and principles that influenced his career and public service. you can see it live at 10:30 a.m. eastern on c-span. >> there are two infamous presence in the u.s.. one is the unit territorial prison. the other one is alcatraz. there is something in our culture and our consciousness about what it would be like. the prison was considered to be
a model institution in its day. not giving your respect to authorities, they could not deal with you. the dark cell could deal with you. that is all the treatment. this was the place you did not want to come. you got bread and water once a day. occasionally, there would be more than one person here and one great big prison breakout. there were 12 people in here. folklore, we have no proof of this, it said a marine guard would in the pitch black feel something coming down the air shaft and it could have been a scorpion or a snake. that is something that is not documented.
>> the prison was home to more than 3000 prisoners. this weekend, discover the history and lit -- literary life. saturday at noon eastern on both tv and c-span2. >> the holocaust musician -- museum hosted a panel. this 40 minute discussion was part of a day-long conference marking the 20th anniversary of the museum. >> we will get started. good afternoon. i am the director of the museum's national institute for holocaust education. the 20 years the museum has been
open, there has been a great deal of scholarship about why and how this is happening. there is much we still do not know, but we have learned a great deal about what happened at the local level. if you have not had a chance yet, i hope you would visit our division, which just opened last week. -- may present some .f the new findings without the because a patient of tens of thousands of people, this would not be possible. it makes another important mayors,hich is to say, police, civil servants, neighbors, teenagers, and so
on, across europe, have opportunity. they have freedom. the focus of the program will be highlighting some of the range of action that is really new information for many people. i would like to introduce the rest of our panel to my left. more recently, he is the founder of a project. next to him is an npr correspondent and author of "the hidden brain.: at the end of the row, a museum historian who has been responsible for many of the interesting new findings about why the holocaust happened. welcome the panelists. positiveocus on
actions in this program. i want to begin with just a few insights about why it was so many people all across europe became composite with the not the's goal. let's start with you. what did we learn about this? >> it is interesting. i started working with professionals about 15 years ago. i was surprised to find there .as not a simple explanation frankly, people are complex and they change their opinions and responses from moment to moment depending on what they understand about the events as they unfold. only a tiny minority were engaged in active rescue or active persecution of jews during the holocaust. if you ask about the actions of those who supported announce a program, i would have to say anti-semitism, agreed, ambition,
and fear. not just real fear. also, a belief in the fearfulness of their position. also, people are essential actors. it is that's just the individual, but people as a part of groups. peer pressure is important here. it is complex. it is not a simple answer. it is very complex. >> you have thought about this question your entire career. had research projects. help us understand why it is so easy in some ways for people to ?ecome involved >> my background is, i grew up in poverty. can you hear me? hello? >> hold it to your mouth like this. >> ok. i grew up surrounded by evil. a poor kid growing up in the ghetto in the south bronx.
job itere people whose was to get good kids to do bad things for money. there were kids a round of world in every community. if you're rich, you do not do things for money. your parents give the money. you are poor, and immigrant, a minority person, there are always these-agents. use subtle psychological impulse. i began to observe, what do they do. it was always a choice. some of my friends did not go down the slippery slope of evil and other kids did. i really wanted to understand that more profoundly. how could an ordinary person begin to step across the line and do that. the first that almost always is
a little thing. like cheating on their taxes a little bit and then a little bit more. there really is a slippery slope of evil. men made to believe they were helping people by shocking someone every time he made a mistake. begin by pressing one boston at 15 volts. the second one is only 30 votes. the third is 45. the last one is 400 volts. when you press that, you may be killing him. the most important thing in that study is all evil begins with 15 votes.
-- volts. line,ou step across that once you look the other way, when a store was shut down, once you did not tell your neighbor, i am really sorry, that is the 15 volts. that is the thing we try to teach young people. be aware of the power of the situation. i am a social psychologist and i tried to avoid of focusing on the issue. what are the situations that trap us. is justm trying to do the opposite. >> we will come back to the other side just a little bit. i want to go for another part of the compressing story, which is the human tendency toward inaction when faced with the suffering of others. tell us about that. >> it presents us with a puzzle
that has repeated itself many times. the world and much of sits on its hands and does nothing. why does this happen? when we think about tragedies, we have some beliefs about tragedies. if something bad happens to us, it would be helpful -- helpful to have many people see that that thing happened. there would be some people to step forward to help. intuitive belief that a number of witnesses increases the likelihood that someone would help. a second intuitive belief is that the number of victims increases, and our willingness to help will go up. are in harm'sle way, should be more willing to act when a larger number is in harm's way. about these two ideas and
ways in which psychologist show that both of these to is -- these intuitions are not just wrong, but wrong in powerful ways. as the number of witnesses and victims go up, the willingness actually do something goes down. in the case of witnesses, we talked about the bystander of fact, which many of you have heard out about. psychologists have been talking about it for decades. i talk about the story of a woman who was attacked on a bridge in detroit. in the full site of hundreds of others. she was eventually pursued on the bridge by her attacker and she leapt off the bridge in full view of hundreds of other people. the astonishing part is that for the longest time, none of these other people call the police. when this happens, our intuitive leap is now to say, there is something wrong with these people. these are bad human beings. i spoke with some of the witnesses.
this is not something that happens just too bad people. happens to ordinary people like you and me. on the second front, there has been a lot of interesting research showing the human ability to exercise compassion functions very much like a telescope. it works best when it can focus on a single individual. when we expand that and now say, 1 million people need help, or 100,000 people need help, our ability to focus on the individual disappears. that is another reason why there is a genocide and you have a large number of witnesses and victims, and did both cases, they do not trigger the intuitive responses. the trigger exactly the opposite. could spend a whole program exploring the topic but i want to turn to the main subject at hand, helping. when mopey -- when most people think about helping, they may even think about rescue. we will show a video clip in a moment of a survivor talking
about her rescuer, a woman named susan, and she. on the left in her photo. let me take a moment to say thank you to the foundation to let us use the testimony you will see in this program. there are incredibly rich stories that have not been seen before. that is susan and her sister. they are on the run in belgium in 1942, when they encountered a woman looking for a place to say about an hour and a half outside of brussels. we will hear susan talked about the encounter she had with the belgian woman now. went to a day i woman, and i was the french to anng one, and i went old lady and said to her, maybe you have a room to rent or whatever, you know.
focused on that and what it is like. we said before, we really do not understand personality differences between heroes and villains. in are often caught up situation you have never been in before, you look around to see what other people are doing. really, the issue with bystanders is when you look around, and there is an emergency, and use these people not doing anything, the social norm is to do nothing. it is as if you are in a group and somebody is saying, do not get involved. as soon as one person gets involved, for whatever reason, the new norm is instantly, get involved. within seconds, other people joined. one of the things we are trying teach young people, from middle school to college, and we want to go to how to be d
effective everyday hero. most heroes are ordinary people we do not know about. unless you live in a big city, unless you're a heroic act is caught on video or by youtube, you do your deed quietly. we do not even know all the heroes in the holocaust. we know christians who helped smallbut many people did heroic deeds. what i am trying to do is to teach young people her winsome begins -- let me put it differently. we think heroes can be trained. people can be trained to first understand the power of the dark side. understand what the principles are that these negative influence agents use. then we inspire you to the bright side and we teach you to bevery day lessons how a hero. every day this week, make
someone feel special. what do you mean? make eye contact. shake hands. give them a justifiable complement. do something that makes them feel special and smile. why is that heroic? notice -- ihave to ofeloped a social habit noticing people, i am going to be the one to notice somebody is in the corner crying, somebody is in the backseat slumping over, and i will have the habit of saying, are you ok? do you need help? so this is one of the simple kinds of things we do. we say, we do not care whether you are a compassionate person or a passive person. we will teach you the skills and strategies and techniques of
it means helping innovators turn their discoveries into new businesses and products. it means maintaining that spirit of discovery. i had a chance to do one of my favorite things as president. we started these white house science fairs. these kids are remarkable. i know you guys were smart when you were their age. i might give them the edge. you have young people converting algaeinto sustainable biofuels. it was one of our favorites
because the young lady kept the algae under her bed. which means that she had the support of parents. -- supportive parents. [laughter] young people were purifying water with bicycle-powered generators. they have already devised faster and cheaper tests for cancer. 15 and 16-year-old. how they were all dreaming to grow up and be just like you. maybe with a little less grey hair, but they share your passion and that excitement. not only did they share that sense of wonder and discovery, but they also shared this fundamental optimism that if you figure this stuff out, people's
lives would be better. there are no inherent barriers for us solving the big problems we face so long as we were diligent and focused and observant and curious. we have to make sure that we are supporting that next generation of dreamers and risk takers. if we are, things will be good. they leave me with extraordinary optimism. they put a smile on my face. i am absolutely convinced that if this academy and the successes that become members of this academy, they are at the center and hearts of our public debate, that power is our economy and improves our health, protect our environment and
security, it makes us the envy of the world. i will thank you on behalf of the american people and make sure that you know that you have a strong supporter in the white house. >> the white house will announce today a new initiative for military spouses. by theill be unveiled private sector. you can join us live at 11:15 a.m. eastern. >> decision points. people can study decisions that george made, hurricane katrina, the surge in iraq.
it shows people what he was faced with. the information that he had at the time, why he chose what he see if that is what they had have done. it shows what it is like to be serious decisions to make. every big problem does come to the desk of the president of united states. >> join laura bush for a tour of the new george w. bush library museum wednesday at 8 p.m. eastern on c-span. >> monday, chuck hagel says the
u.s. plans to send 12 more -- aircraft to japan this summer. chuck hagel made this announcement during a press conference. this is 40 minutes. today i am honored to welcome the minister to the pentagon. we have just completed a very productive meeting covering the full range of issues facing the u.s.-japan alliance including north korea's destabilizing behavior, threats to maritime security, and our insured efforts to enhance postured capabilities to respond to the 21st century challenges. [translating in japanese]
govern longstanding u.s. policy on the islands. -- on the senkaku islands. [japanese translation] the united states does not take a position on the overall sovereignty of the islands but we do recognize they are under the administration of japan and fall under our security treaty obligations. [japanese translation]
>> any actions that could raise tensions or lead to miscalculations affect the stability of the entire region. [japanese translation] >> therefore the united states opposes any unilateral of course of action that seeks to undermine japan's and the strict control -- japan's administrative control. [japanese translation]
today we announced the formation of a defense isr working group to deepen cooperation in this area. [japanese translation] >> mr. onadera and i reviewd the significant progress we have made in realigning the forces in japan to maintain a stable and resilient military presence in the region. [japanese translation]
>> earlier this month united states and japan jointly announced a base consolidation plan on okinawa. [japanese translation] >> its implementation in concert with moving ahead on the futemna replacement facility will ensure we maintain the right mix of capabilities in okinawa and elsewhere in the region as we reduce our footprint on okinawa and strengthen this alliance for the future.
>> mr. onodera, thank you. [japanese translation] >> i had a very good discussion with secretary hagel today. >> with the outcome of meeting president barack obama, secretary hegel and i are concerned about the significance of elevating our relationship to the next step. considering the situation of north korea we consent our bilateral cooperation.
>> secretary hagel and i are concerned that article 5 of the u.s.-japan security treaty -- we are opposed to any unilateral action that goes to change the status quo by force. [speaking japanese] >> on bilateral defense cooperation we are concerned that bilateral discussions on strategic environment perceptions are under way. [speaking japanese]
>> lastly i invite secretary hagel's visit to japan this year and we agreed to hold two meetings, preferably this year, to discuss efforts of strengthening alliance among ministers and secretaries of defense and foreign affairs. [japanese translation] >> based on the outcome of today's's meeting i will continue to work on hunches to build stronger bilateral alliance. thank you for your warm hospitality and for secretaries
>> my question goes to secretary hagel. it is on the secretary -- is on the security situation in east asia. how you see the situation of north korea and current status of north korea? the second question is how you see the issue of north korea missiles and how you are planning to respond to that? >> the united states, like all of our allies in the region, as well as over 80 countries of the world are very concerned about the situation on the korean
peninsula. we are working with our allies to be prepared for any contingency. i would call upon the north korean government to take the path of peace. there is an effective, wise course of action. they should take advantage of that. our capabilities to deal with provocations, as we have said before, is one that gives us a strong sense of preparation, which i have already noted we are prepared for any contingency.
ending how do ou assess the north korean threat? do you see things starting to come down now or you think we will be at a high level of threat -- a persistent level of threat from now on? as you probably heard over the last couple of days members of congress have been calling for a no-fly zone, the creation of a safe zone and other military action. do you rollout any unilateral -- u.s. action in syria? do you think any action would require a coalition of the willing or nato-you and support? secondly there have been concerns about the radicalization of the rebels. you think time has passed for any thoughts of arming the rebels? are to meet concerns now about how radical the rebels are? >> [japanese translation]
>> my question goes to both of you. it is on the guidelines of u.s.- japan defense cooperation. i understand that you are working on the review of the guidelines of u.s.-japan defense cooperation. what plans do you have in your mind? by going through the discussion of this review those countries are discussing all new rose, and capabilities -- all two roles and capabilities. i understand that both of you have mentioned and agreed to work on the bilateral control and surveillance area in defense in particular. secretary hagel, in what specific areas the u.s. government expect to see more of a role for u.s. forces in the
process of reviewing this guideline? to prime minister onodera, what kind of area of self-defense is role should be considered deep into cooperation? and this goes to when you are compiling the basic directions of these guidelines? if you have any schedule or time frame in mind could you share with us? >> [speaking japanese]
>> the current guidelines for u.s.-japan defense cooperation was drafted in 1997, therefore a certain amount of time has passed since then and we have seen drastic changes in security and garment. u.s. and japan have been studying on the rolls, missions, and capabilities. we have just started the discussion on the strategic environment perception between our two countries and discussed for the schedule of this year '. i think it will take you years. >> thank you. i would agree with the minister. the reason i woudl agree with it is -- i would agree with it is because this region of the world, asia pacific, is a vital area for stability, security, trade.
>> the second infantry division and 82nd airborne division. the fourth infantry division and. the eighth infantry division and 14th armored division. the 26th infantry division and 12th armored division. the 29th infantry division and 11th armored division. the 30th infantry division and 10th armored division. the 36th infantry division and ninth armored division. the 42nd infantry division and eighth armored division. the 45th infantry division and sixth armored division. the 63rd infantry division and fourth armored division. the 65th infantry division and third armored division. the 69th infantry division and 104th infantry division. the 71st infantry division and 103rd infantry division. the 80th infantry division and 99th infantry division. the 83rd infantry division and 95th infantry division. the 84th infantry division and 19th infantry division. the 86 infantry division and 89th infantry division. [applause] ♪